COVID 19 – Update

Worldwide Corona Cases

What is COVID-19?

The COVID-19 is a corona virus disease that is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2 (SARS-COV-2). First discovered in Wuhan, China in 2019 (December) it is a beta Corona virus in the same subgenus as the SARS virus but in different clade. The structure of the receptor binding gene region is very similar to that of the south coronavirus, and a virus has been shown to use the same receptor, the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) for cell entry.

Till March 28 more than 600,000 cases of COVID-19 has been reported. The first case of COVID-19 from Wuhan was reported at the end of year 2019.

The primary mode of spread is through droplets of saliva or nasal secretions when an infected person coughs or sneezes on an unsuspecting bystander. The person to person spread of COVID-19 is thought to occur mainly by respiratory droplets resembling the spread of influenza. Infection can also occur if a person touches an infected surface and then touches his or her face, eyes or nose. Droplets don’t travel more than 6 feet and do not linger in air for long.

The incubation period is variable and the disease can occur within 14 days following exposure, although most cases occur approximately 4 to 5 days after exposure.
Most infections are mild 81%, severe disease occurs in 14% and critical disease occurs in about 5% of the cases. The case fatality rate is about 2.3%.

The risk factors for the severe illness includes following:
1. Cardiovascular disease.
2. Diabetes mellitus.
3. Hypertension.
4. Chronic lung disease.
5. Cancer.
6. Chronic kidney disease.

Individuals of any age can acquire the severe illness although the Middle Ages or elderly are more prone.